Abstract: The paper proposes the first Ukrainian translation of the 41st chapter of the Book of the Dead based on the text of the papyrus of Nebseni (pLondon BM. Juni Egyptian book of the dead spells, His published work has focused on philology, papyrology, Demotic texts, and ancient Egyptian religious. Dez. Übersetzung im Kontext von „dead spell“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: they are taken outright from Spell of the Egyptian Book of.
My teeth are a knife, my tusks are the Viper Mountain. Get back, you crocodile of the West! The nau -snake is in my belly, and I have not given myself to you, your flame will not be on me.
My hair is Nu ; my face is Ra ; my eyes are Hathor ; my ears are Wepwawet ; my nose is She who presides over her lotus leaf; my lips are Anubis ; my molars are Selkis ; my incisors are Isis the goddess; my arms are the Ram, the Lord of mendes; my breast is Neith , Lady of Sais; my back is Seth ; my phallus is Osiris ; my muscles are the Lords of Kheraha; my chest is he who is greatly majestic; my belly and my spine are Sekhmet ; my buttocks are the Eye of Horus ; my thighs and my calves are Nut ; my feet are Ptah ; my toes are living falcons; there is no member of mine devoid of a god, and Thoth is the protection of all my flesh.
I have guarded this egg of the Great Cackler. If it grows, I grow; if it lives, I life; if it breathes air, I breathe air. May I have power in my heart, may I have power in my arms, may I have power in my legs, may I have power in my mouth, may I have power in all my members may I have power over invocation-offerings, may I have power over water Come for my soul, O you wardens of the sky!
If you delay letting my soul see my corpse, you will find the eye of Horus standing up thus against you The sacred barque will be joyful and the great god will proceed in peace when you allow this soul of mine to ascend vindicated to the gods May it see my corpse, may it rest on my mummy, which will never be destroyed or perish.
To be spoken over a falcon standing with the White Crown on his head; Atum , Shu and Tefnut , Geb and Nut , Osiris and Isis , Seth and Nepthys being drawn in ochre on a new bowl placed in the sacred barque, together with an image of this spirit ba whom you wish to be made worthy, it being anointed with oil.
Offer to them incense on the fire and roasted ducks, and worship Ra. It means that he for whom this is done will voyage and be with Ra every day in every place he desires to travel, and it means that the enemies of Ra will be driven off in very deed.
A matter a million times true. O you gates, you who keep the gates because of Osiris, O you who guard them and who report the affairs of the Two Lands to Osiris every day; I know you and I know your names.
They were expensive items; one source gives the price of a Book of the Dead scroll as one deben of silver,  perhaps half the annual pay of a labourer.
In one case, a Book of the Dead was written on second-hand papyrus. Most owners of the Book of the Dead were evidently part of the social elite; they were initially reserved for the royal family, but later papyri are found in the tombs of scribes, priests and officials.
Towards the beginning of the history of the Book of the Dead , there are roughly 10 copies belonging to men for every one for a woman.
The dimensions of a Book of the Dead could vary widely; the longest is 40m long while some are as short as 1m. The scribes working on Book of the Dead papyri took more care over their work than those working on more mundane texts; care was taken to frame the text within margins, and to avoid writing on the joints between sheets.
Books were often prefabricated in funerary workshops, with spaces being left for the name of the deceased to be written in later.
The text of a New Kingdom Book of the Dead was typically written in cursive hieroglyphs , most often from left to right, but also sometimes from right to left.
The hieroglyphs were in columns, which were separated by black lines — a similar arrangement to that used when hieroglyphs were carved on tomb walls or monuments.
Illustrations were put in frames above, below, or between the columns of text. The largest illustrations took up a full page of papyrus.
From the 21st Dynasty onward, more copies of the Book of the Dead are found in hieratic script. The calligraphy is similar to that of other hieratic manuscripts of the New Kingdom; the text is written in horizontal lines across wide columns often the column size corresponds to the size of the papyrus sheets of which a scroll is made up.
Occasionally a hieratic Book of the Dead contains captions in hieroglyphic. The text of a Book of the Dead was written in both black and red ink, regardless of whether it was in hieroglyphic or hieratic script.
Most of the text was in black, with red ink used for the titles of spells, opening and closing sections of spells, the instructions to perform spells correctly in rituals, and also for the names of dangerous creatures such as the demon Apep.
The style and nature of the vignettes used to illustrate a Book of the Dead varies widely. Some contain lavish colour illustrations, even making use of gold leaf.
Others contain only line drawings, or one simple illustration at the opening. Book of the Dead papyri were often the work of several different scribes and artists whose work was literally pasted together.
The existence of the Book of the Dead was known as early as the Middle Ages, well before its contents could be understood. In Karl Richard Lepsius published a translation of a manuscript dated to the Ptolemaic era and coined the name " Book of The Dead" das Todtenbuch.
He also introduced the spell numbering system which is still in use, identifying different spells. The work of E.
Allen and Raymond O. Orientverlag has released another series of related monographs, Totenbuchtexte , focused on analysis, synoptic comparison, and textual criticism.
Research work on the Book of the Dead has always posed technical difficulties thanks to the need to copy very long hieroglyphic texts.
Initially, these were copied out by hand, with the assistance either of tracing paper or a camera lucida. In the midth century, hieroglyphic fonts became available and made lithographic reproduction of manuscripts more feasible.
In the present day, hieroglyphics can be rendered in desktop publishing software and this, combined with digital print technology, means that the costs of publishing a Book of the Dead may be considerably reduced.
However, a very large amount of the source material in museums around the world remains unpublished. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For other uses, see Book of the Dead disambiguation. List of Book of the Dead spells. The ancient Egyptian books of the afterlife.
How to Read the Egyptian Book of the Dead. Dedi Djadjaemankh Rededjet Ubaoner. Book Ancient Egypt portal. Index Major topics Glossary of artifacts.
Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons Wikiquote. Spell for passing on the upper road of Rosetjau.
I am he who fixed the limits of the flood and who judged between the Rivals, I have come and I have removed the evil which was on Osiris. Spell for not doing work in the realm of the dead.
It is I who lift up the arm of Him who is insert; I have gone out of Hermopolis, I am a living soul, I have been initiated into the hearts of the baboons.
Spell for causing a shabti to do work for a man the realm of the dead. Spell for passing by the dangerous coil of Apep. If I am not weak for you, suffering from you shall not enter into these members of mine.
I am Atum at the head of the abyss. Spell for opening up the West by day. Hermopolis is opened and my head is sealed. O Thoth, the eyes of Horus is unblemished, the Eye of Horus saves me, and splendid are my ornaments from the brow of Ra, father of the gods; I am this Osiris here in the West.
Osiris knows his day, and if he does not exist in it, then I will not exist in it. I am Ra who is with the gods and I will not perish; stand up, Horus, that I may number you among the gods.
Spell for going out into the day after opening the tomb. O you soul, great majestic, behold, I have come that I may see you; I open the Netherworld that I may see my father Osiris and drive away darkness, for I am beloved of him.
I have come that I may see my father Osiris and that I may cut out the breath of Seth who has harmed my father Osiris. I have opened up every path that is in the sky and on earth, for I am the well-beloved son of my father Osiris.
I am noble, I am spirit, I am equipped; O all you gods and all you spirits, prepare a path for me. I have dug up the sky, I have hacked up the horizon, I have traversed the earth to its furthest extent, I have taken possession of the spirits of the great ones, because I am one who equips a myriad with his magic.
I eat with my mouth, I defecate with my hinder-parts, for I am a god, lord of the Netherworld, I have given up those things which were established in the past, I have planned appearance in glory.
Spell for going out against a foe in the realm of the dead. O you who consume your arm, prepare a path for me, for I am Ra, I have come forth from the horizon against my foe.
He has been given to me ad he shall not be taken from me. I have extended my arm as Lord of the Wereret-crown. I have stridden out with the speed of the uraeus when my foes has not been put into my hand for me.
Such is my foe, he has been given to me, he shall not be taken form me. I have arisen as Horus, I have sat down as Ptah, I am as strong as Thoth, I am mighty as Atum, I walk with my legs, I speak with my mouth in order to seek out my foe; he has been given to me and he shall not be taken from me.
Spell for going in and out. Hail to you, O Ra, guardian of the secrets of the gates which are on the neck of Geb, because of this balance of Ra with which he weighs his justice daily.
Behold, I have hacked up the earth, and I have been permitted to come, having grown old. Spell for going in and out of the West.
To me belong all men, I have given everything to myself. I have gone in as a falcon, I have come out as a phoenix, the god who worships Ra.
Prepare a path for me, that I may enter in peace into the beautiful West, for I belong to the Lake of Horus, I leash the hounds of Horus. Prepare a way for me, that I may go in and worship Osiris, the Lord of Life.
Spell for removing anger from the heart of a god. Hail to you, you who descend in power, chief of all secret matters!
This collection included the significant variations of each spell and his commentary. These texts do not record the lives and deeds of the men or women buried in the tombs who owned them.
Instead, these texts provide spells to ensure that a soul could pass into the Egyptian paradise through the perils of the Tuat. The Book of the Dead is a compilation of many Egyptian texts of which the Pyramid Texts are the oldest.
These texts stated that his connection to Osiris would allow for the fulfillment of his needs in the afterlife. During this period, only the Pharaoh could have the texts carved in his tomb that would ensure him a good place in the afterlife.
The Coffin Texts were first compiled during the Middle Kingdom and written from the 18th to 21st Dynasties. Some of these texts were papyrus rolls that could be fifty to one-hundred feet long.
Priests carved or painted portions of these texts on coffins and furniture. Each spell of the Coffin Texts received its own title but there was no set arrangement established by the priests.
These texts differ from the Pyramid Texts because they were often used by many members of the uppermost level of society.
During this time, families were often buried in the same tombs but they showed social status by the size of different burials. It continued in use until the end of the Ptolemaic Period.
Wider portions of the population used these texts and included portions of the Pyramid and Coffin Texts.
The people standardized the order and number of the spells in the Book of the Dead. Almost chapters or spells exist today but no single compilation discovered to date contains all the spells.
Some spells provided information for the dead about the gods, so the dead could identify with the gods. The Book of the Dead developed from a tradition of funerary manuscripts dating back to the Egyptian Old Kingdom.
The Pyramid Texts were written in an unusual hieroglyphic style; many of the hieroglyphs representing humans or animals were left incomplete or drawn mutilated, most likely to prevent them causing any harm to the dead pharaoh.
In the Middle Kingdom , a new funerary text emerged, the Coffin Texts. The Coffin Texts used a newer version of the language, new spells, and included illustrations for the first time.
The Coffin Texts were most commonly written on the inner surfaces of coffins, though they are occasionally found on tomb walls or on papyri. The earliest known occurrence of the spells included in the Book of the Dead is from the coffin of Queen Mentuhotep , of the 13th dynasty , where the new spells were included amongst older texts known from the Pyramid Texts and Coffin Texts.
Some of the spells introduced at this time claim an older provenance; for instance the rubric to spell 30B states that it was discovered by the Prince Hordjedef in the reign of King Menkaure , many hundreds of years before it is attested in the archaeological record.
By the 17th dynasty , the Book of the Dead had become widespread not only for members of the royal family, but courtiers and other officials as well.
At this stage, the spells were typically inscribed on linen shrouds wrapped around the dead, though occasionally they are found written on coffins or on papyrus.
The New Kingdom saw the Book of the Dead develop and spread further. From this period onward the Book of the Dead was typically written on a papyrus scroll, and the text illustrated with vignettes.
During the 19th dynasty in particular, the vignettes tended to be lavish, sometimes at the expense of the surrounding text.
In the Third Intermediate Period , the Book of the Dead started to appear in hieratic script, as well as in the traditional hieroglyphics.
The hieratic scrolls were a cheaper version, lacking illustration apart from a single vignette at the beginning, and were produced on smaller papyri.
At the same time, many burials used additional funerary texts, for instance the Amduat. During the 25th and 26th dynasties , the Book of the Dead was updated, revised and standardised.
Spells were consistently ordered and numbered for the first time. In the Late period and Ptolemaic period , the Book of the Dead remained based on the Saite recension, though increasingly abbreviated towards the end of the Ptolemaic period.
The last use of the Book of the Dead was in the 1st century BCE, though some artistic motifs drawn from it were still in use in Roman times. The Book of the Dead is made up of a number of individual texts and their accompanying illustrations.
Most sub-texts begin with the word ro, which can mean "mouth," "speech," "spell," "utterance," "incantation," or "a chapter of a book.
At present, some spells are known,  though no single manuscript contains them all. They served a range of purposes. Some are intended to give the deceased mystical knowledge in the afterlife, or perhaps to identify them with the gods: Still others protect the deceased from various hostile forces or guide him through the underworld past various obstacles.
Famously, two spells also deal with the judgement of the deceased in the Weighing of the Heart ritual. Such spells as 26—30, and sometimes spells 6 and , relate to the heart and were inscribed on scarabs.
The texts and images of the Book of the Dead were magical as well as religious. Magic was as legitimate an activity as praying to the gods, even when the magic was aimed at controlling the gods themselves.
The act of speaking a ritual formula was an act of creation;  there is a sense in which action and speech were one and the same thing.
Hieroglyphic script was held to have been invented by the god Thoth , and the hieroglyphs themselves were powerful.
Written words conveyed the full force of a spell. The spells of the Book of the Dead made use of several magical techniques which can also be seen in other areas of Egyptian life.
A number of spells are for magical amulets , which would protect the deceased from harm. In addition to being represented on a Book of the Dead papyrus, these spells appeared on amulets wound into the wrappings of a mummy.
Other items in direct contact with the body in the tomb, such as headrests, were also considered to have amuletic value. Almost every Book of the Dead was unique, containing a different mixture of spells drawn from the corpus of texts available.
For most of the history of the Book of the Dead there was no defined order or structure. The spells in the Book of the Dead depict Egyptian beliefs about the nature of death and the afterlife.
The Book of the Dead is a vital source of information about Egyptian beliefs in this area. One aspect of death was the disintegration of the various kheperu , or modes of existence.
Mummification served to preserve and transform the physical body into sah , an idealised form with divine aspects;  the Book of the Dead contained spells aimed at preserving the body of the deceased, which may have been recited during the process of mummification.
The ka , or life-force, remained in the tomb with the dead body, and required sustenance from offerings of food, water and incense.
In case priests or relatives failed to provide these offerings, Spell ensured the ka was satisfied. It was the ba , depicted as a human-headed bird, which could "go forth by day" from the tomb into the world; spells 61 and 89 acted to preserve it.
An akh was a blessed spirit with magical powers who would dwell among the gods. The nature of the afterlife which the dead person enjoyed is difficult to define, because of the differing traditions within Ancient Egyptian religion.
In the Book of the Dead , the dead were taken into the presence of the god Osiris , who was confined to the subterranean Duat. There are also spells to enable the ba or akh of the dead to join Ra as he travelled the sky in his sun-barque, and help him fight off Apep.
There are fields, crops, oxen, people and waterways. The deceased person is shown encountering the Great Ennead , a group of gods, as well as his or her own parents.
While the depiction of the Field of Reeds is pleasant and plentiful, it is also clear that manual labour is required. For this reason burials included a number of statuettes named shabti , or later ushebti.
The path to the afterlife as laid out in the Book of the Dead was a difficult one. The deceased was required to pass a series of gates, caverns and mounds guarded by supernatural creatures.
Their names—for instance, "He who lives on snakes" or "He who dances in blood"—are equally grotesque. These creatures had to be pacified by reciting the appropriate spells included in the Book of the Dead ; once pacified they posed no further threat, and could even extend their protection to the dead person.
If all the obstacles of the Duat could be negotiated, the deceased would be judged in the "Weighing of the Heart" ritual, depicted in Spell The deceased was led by the god Anubis into the presence of Osiris.
There, the dead person swore that he had not committed any sin from a list of 42 sins ,  reciting a text known as the "Negative Confession".
Maat was often represented by an ostrich feather, the hieroglyphic sign for her name. If the scales balanced, this meant the deceased had led a good life.
Anubis would take them to Osiris and they would find their place in the afterlife, becoming maa-kheru , meaning "vindicated" or "true of voice".